The Columbia River Treaty (Treaty Between the United States and Canada Relating to Cooperative Development of the Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin) is a treaty between the U.S. and Canada that regulates water resources in the Columbia River Watershed. It includes provisions for hydropower, irrigation, and flood control.
On this page:
- Key Documents
- More Documents
- Related Topics
- Organizations and Governments
- Libraries and Digital Archives
- 1909 – Boundary Waters Treaty between the U.S. and Canada
- 1944 – International Columbia River Engineering Board formed by the International Joint Commission (IJC) of the U.S. and Canada
- 1961 – Columbia River Treaty signed
- 1963 – British Columbia-Canada agreement between Canada and British Columbia
- 1964 – Columbia River Treaty ratified
- 1964 – Supplementary agreement to the Columbia River Treaty
- 1985 – Pacific Salmon Treaty signed by U.S. and Canada
- 1995 – Columbia Basin Trust Act of Canada
- 2008 – Columbia Basin Fish Accords to form agreements between the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), the Colville, Umatilla, Warm Springs, and Yakama tribes, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration
- 2014 – Deadline for deciding termination of the Columbia River Treaty in 2024
- 2024 – Sixty years from ratification of the Columbia River Treaty
These documents provide short summaries of the treaty:
- Columbia River Treaty Review – History and 2014/2024 Review Brochure (PDF). Published by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration. Revised February 2009. https://www.bpa.gov/news/pubs/GeneralPublications/crt-Columbia-River-Treaty-History-and-2014-2024-Review.pdf
- Canada-US Columbia River treaty – This Canadian government website provides information about the treaty.
- Columbia River Treaty Protocol and Documents (PDF) – Online text of treaty documents at engage.gov.bc.ca.
- Treaty relating to international cooperation in water resource development of the Columbia River Basin. United States Department of State. Washington, D.C., 1961.Columbia River treaty documents: Treaty between the United States of America and Canada relating to comparative development of the water resources of the Columbia River Basin, and the documents associated therewith. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Department of Interior, 1971.
- CONTENTS: Introduction — Map of Treaty and Base System Projects — Treaty and Base System Elevations.
- INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS: The Columbia Treaty — Canadian note of January 22, 1964 re. protocol — Protocol (annex to exchange of notes) — United States note of January 22, 1964 re. annex — United States note of January 22, 1964 re. attachment — Attachment relating to terms of sale — Canadian note of January 22, 1964 re. attachment — Canadian note of September 16, 1964 re. treaty — United States note of September 16, 1964 re. treaty — Canadian note of September 16, 1964 re. exchange of notes dated January 22, 1964 — United States note of September 16, 1964 re. exchange of notes dated January 22, 1964 — Protocols of exchange of instruments of ratification: United States — Protocols of exchange of instruments of ratification: Canadian.
- UNITED STATES DOCUMENTS: Ratification of treaty — Proclamation by the President — Executive Order No. 11177 Designating a U.S. entity — Determination of United States Entity.
- CANADIAN DOCUMENTS: Canada-B.C. agreement of July 8, 1963 — Canada-B.C. agreement of January 13, 1964 — B.C. Order in Council re. Canadian entitlement purchase agreement — Canadian Order in Council of August 31, 1964 re. ratification of treaty — Canadian Order in Council of September 4, 1964 re. exchange of notes — Canadian Order in Council of September 4, 1964 re. designation of Canadian entity — Ratification of treaty — Canadian entitlement purchase agreement
- Columbia River System Operations EIS (Environmental Impact Statement). U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, 2020.
- Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 review. United States Army, Corps of Engineers: Bonneville Power Administration. 2012. https://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo69072 – This site, created by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration to review the treaty for its 50th anniversary includes maps, a history of the treaty, and various documents. This is an older web page and includes broken links.
- Floods of May-June 1948 in Columbia River Basin. Prepared under the direction of C. G. Paulsen. A presentation of data on floods, gathered from selected gaging stations and other sources. With a section on Magnitude and frequency of floods, by S. E. Rantz and H. C. Riggs. Water-supply paper no. 1080. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949.
- Lipiec, Eva; Pervaze A. Sheikh; Congressional Research Service. The International Joint Commission (IJC). CRS Report IF10761. Updated August 30, 2019. https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/IF/IF10761.
- Stern, Charles V., Congressional Research Service. Columbia River Treaty Review. CRS Report R43287. Updated December 15, 2020. https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R43287.
- Treaties in Force. Washington, D.C.: Treaty Affairs Staff, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State. https://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/LPS4126 or https://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/LPS4127
- U.S. Army Corp of Engineers CRT Documents
- U.S. Department of State press releases (back to 2017)
- U.S. Entity Regional Recommendation for the Future of the Columbia River Treaty after 2024 (PDF). December 13, 2013.
- Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909, 36 Stat 2448, T.S. No. 548 on NOAA website
- Northwest Power Act, 1980 (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act) in the Statues at Large on GovInfo – Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington states
- Non-Treaty Storage Agreement, B.C. Hydro
Related pages on this site:
Columbia Basin Fish Accords
The Columbia Basin Fish Accords are a set of agreements between the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), the Colville, Umatilla, Warm Springs, and Yakama tribes, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration.
- Columbia Basin Fish Accords (Federal Caucus) SalmonRecovery.gov
- 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords: Memorandum of Agreement between the Three Treaty Tribes and FCRPS Action Agencies (PDF) at CRITFC.org
- 2018 and 2020 Columbia Basin Fish Accords Extensions (PDF)
- Ten Year Summary 2008-2017 (PDF) CRITFC.org
Organizations and Governments
- B.C. Hydro and Power Authority – Referred to as the “Canadian Entity” in the Columbia River Treaty.
- Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) – Referred to as the “U.S. Entity” in the treaty (along with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers).
- Columbia Basin Trust – Columbia Basin Trust Act.
- Columbia Power Corporation – Power company of the province of British Columbia.
- Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC)
- Federal Caucus (SalmonRecovery.gov) – Site with information from ten federal agencies involved in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.
- Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation – The Bureau of Reclamation manages water and power projects in the Western United States.
- Global Affairs Canada
- Government Accountability Act(GAO) – Reports and Testimonies
- Idaho Governor’s Salmon Workgroup
- International Columbia River Engineering Board – see International Joint Commission
- International Joint Commission – Boundary Waters Treaty.
- Natural Resources Canada
- Northwest Power and Conservation Council – Formed between Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana with authorization from 1980’s Northwest Power Act. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act
- Pacific Salmon Commission – Pacific Salmon Treaty.
- Upper Columbia United Tribes
- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – Columbia River Treaty – Referred to as the “U.S. Entity” in the treaty (along with the Bonneville Power Administration).
- U.S. Department of State
Libraries and Digital Archives
- Guide to Digital Archives (on this site)
- Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Library
- Law Archive of Wyoming Scholarship
- Universities Consortium on Columbia River Governance, University of Oregon College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences & Program in Water Conflict Management and Transformation
- University of Idaho Digital Commons
- University of Oregon’s Oregon Digital
- U.S. Catalog of Government Publications (CGP)
- MetaLib – MetaLib is a federated search engine created by the Government Publishing Office to search many government databases at once.
Added by Ronnie Joiner on February 11, 2022. Updated on February 20, 2022.